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托福阅读: 浅谈托福阅读答案选项的设置

2017-07-05 10:02

来源:上海新东方

作者:陈青莲

  月有阴晴圆缺,人有悲欢离合,而我们的托福题目自然也有不同的难度系数。明明已经确定了考点句,很多同学却容易被选项迷惑,而错失宝贵的分数。今天小编就来给大家分享托福选项的设计。

  涉及题型(三):

  句子简化题 sentence simplification,

  细节题 factual information,

  排除题 negative factual information

  1. 正确答案选项的设置

  丨A.原文信息的同义改写:

  1 同义词替换

  2 正话反说/反话正说(例题1.D)

  例题1:(摘录于TPO8R2,Extinction of the Dinosaurs)

  ...Data from diverse sources, including geochemical evidence preserved in seafloor sediments, indicate that theLate Cretaceous climate was milder than today’s. The days were not too hot, nor the nights too cold. The summers were not too warm, nor the winters too frigid. The shallow seas on the continents probably buffered the temperature of the nearby air, keeping it relatively constant.

  1.According to paragraph 1,which of the following is true of the Late Cretaceous climate?

  A.Summers were very warm and winters were very cold.

  B.Shallow seas on the continents caused frequent temperature changes.

  C.The climate was very similarto today’s climate.

  D.The climate did not change dramatically from season to season.

  解析:文章说气候比较温和,答案选项反过来说气候改变不大。

  3 句型改变(例题2.C)

  例题2:(摘录于官方指南116页,Swimming Machines)

  A bluefin tuna in water of 7°C (45°F) can maintain a core temperature of over 25°C (77°F). This warm body temperature may help not only the muscles to work better, but also the brain and the eyes.The billfishes have gone one step further. They have evolved special"heaters" of modified muscle tissue that warm the eyes and brain, maintaining peak performance of these critical organs.

  10. Which of the following is true of bluefin tunas?

  A.Their eyes and brain are more efficient than those of any other fish.

  B.Their body temperature can change greatly depending on the water temperature.

  C.They can swim in waters that are much colder than their own bodies.

  D.They have special muscle tissue that warms their eyes and brain.

  解析:文章说在7度水中保持体温超过25度,答案选项改写成可以在比身体更冷的水中游泳。

  丨B.原文信息的抽象扩大(例题3. B)

  例题3:(摘录于官方指南103页,Artisans and Industrialization)

  Apprentices were considered part of the family, and masters were responsible not only for teaching their apprentices a trade but also for providing them some education and for supervising their moral behavior.

  A.Masters demanded moral behavior from apprentices but often treated them irresponsibly.

  B.The responsibilities of the master to the apprentice went beyond the teaching of a trade.

  C.Masters preferred to maintain the trade within the family by supervising and educating the younger family members.

  D.Masters who trained members of their own family as apprentices demanded excellence from them.

  解析:文章说徒弟被认为是家庭的一份子,师傅的责任不仅有教手艺还有提供教育和道德监管。答案选项说师傅的责任不仅仅是教手艺,虽然没有直接提到其他的责任,但是在逻辑重心上和原文属于抽象的吻合。

  2.错误答案选项的设置

  丨A. 与原文不相关的内容:

  1 文章没出现的信息(例题3. C/D)

  C.Masters preferred to maintain the trade within the family by supervising and educating the younger family members.

  D.Masters who trained members of their own family as apprentices demanded excellence from them.

  解析:文章没提到family member这一概念。

  2 出现文章没提到的多余关系

  文章说a导致b,并且c导致d;答案提到了a导致的b和c导致的d有关系。

  丨B. 与原文矛盾的内容:

  1 显形逻辑联系词:

  1.1答案选项的逻辑重心与原文不匹配(although a,b不等于b,but a)

  1.2答案选项与原文逻辑相悖(例题3. A)

  A.Masters demanded moral behavior from apprentices but often treated them irresponsibly.

  解析:文章的确出现了but一词,但是属于not only...but also的部分内容,因此本身不具有转折关系,选项A出现了与原文并列递进相悖的逻辑关系。

  2 动词变化(例题1.B/例题2.B)

  The shallow seas on the continents probably buffered the temperature of the nearby air, keeping it relatively constant.

  B.Shallow seas on the continents caused frequent temperature changes.

  解析:文章出现的buffer这一词,同学如果不认识,只看到shallow sea和temperature有关联,而B选项也有关系,造成误选。buffer意思为缓冲,即使不认识,也可以根据 keeping it relatively constant 伴随做结果状语理解肯定不是B选项的改变巨大。

  3 指代关系(例题2.D)

  The billfishes have gone one step further.They have evolved special "heaters" of modified muscle tissue that warm the eyes and brain, maintaining peak performance of these criticalorgans.

  D.They have special muscle tissue that warms their eyes and brain.

  解析:题干问bluefin tuna 因此答案选项D的指代词they指代金枪鱼,而文章内部的确出现答案选项D的大致对应,只不过文章内部they是之前的billfishes.

  4 反义词和否定含义词(例题1.A)

  The summers were not too warm, nor the winters too frigid.

  A.Summers were very warm and winters were very cold.

  解析:文章和答案内容用否定含义的词语相反。

  丨C. 观点不匹配:比较级/最高极/绝对词(例题2.A)

  A bluefin tuna in water of 7°C (45°F) can maintain a core temperature of over3 25°C (77°F). This warm body temperature may help not only the muscles to work better, but also the brain and the eyes.

  A.Their eyes and brain are more efficient than those of any other fish.

  解析:文章没有出现和其余鱼类的比较对比。

  注意:比较极/最高极/绝对词大部分情况错误,如果正确,原文必须有相关信息

  例题4:(摘录于TPO3R2,The Depletion of the Ogalalla Aquifer)

  Paragraph 1:The vast grasslands of the High Plains in the central United States were settled by farmers and ranchers in the 1880’s. This region has asemiarid climate, and for 50 years after its settlement, it supported alow-intensity agricultural economy of cattle ranching and wheat farming. In the early twentieth century, however, it was discovered that much of the High Plains was underlain by a huge aquifer (a rock layer containing large quantities of groundwater).This aquifer was named the Ogallala aquifer after the Ogallala Sioux Indians,who once inhabited the region.

  1.According to paragraph 1, which of the following statements about the High Plains is true?

  A. Until farmers and ranchers settled there in the 1880’s, the High Plains had never been inhabited.

  B. The climate of the High Plains is characterized by higher-than-average temperatures.

  C. The large aquifer that lies underneath the High Plains was discovered by the Ogallala Sioux Indians.

  D. Before the early 1900’sthere was only a small amount of farming and ranching in the High Plains.

  解析:这里虽然有only一词,但是其含义和原文的a low-intensity agriculture economy 低产量的农业不矛盾,故正确。

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(实习编辑:莫颖)

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