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送分题型——词汇题备考技巧

2017-03-01 16:11

来源:新东方上海学校

作者:戚宵睿

>>2017年托福考位信息<<

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  童鞋,看了这个标题的前半截你是不是有点激动?送分呢!(宝宝们聚集起来!)但是看到是词汇题,词汇量少的宝宝是不是又有点绝望(宝宝们别着急散去啊!)。词汇题正是阅读题型中“难者不会,会者不难”神一样的存在。今天我们就来一窥究竟吧!找找那些被你忽视的解题线索。

  词汇量少的宝宝可看好了哦!

  最易忽视的线索1:与词汇搭配的介词。

  任何词性的单词与介词搭配,词义都由介词的词义定。举个简单的例子:seek for/search for/hunt for/look for,都由for 来搭配,虽然四个动词从词义上来说有区别,但都是表示找寻什么,也是因为介词for的作用。For有表“目标”的意思。

  TPO1-2

  24. But neither the human imitative instinct nor a penchant for fantasy by itself leads to an autonomous theater.

  The word “penchant” in the passage is closet in meaning to

  A. Compromise   B. Inclination   C. Tradition   D. Respect

  解析:介词for可以用来表示“去向,趋势”。比如:I’ll leave for Chicago tomorrow.四个选项里面B具有明显的趋向性,所以答案为B。

  DELTA EXERCISE

  When hoisted up in the sky, the microscopic particles act as multiple surfaces on which the moisture in clouds can condense as tiny droplets.

  The word “hoisted”in the passage is close in meaning to

  A. Lifted   B.Grouped   C. Returned   D. Pointed

  解析:介词up可以用来表示“在……上面”,所以答案为A。

  TPO1-3

  37. This is because the gaps among the original grains are often not totally plugged with cementing chemicals; also, parts of the original grains may become dissolved by percolating ground water…

  The word “plugged”in the passage is closet in meaning to

  A. washed   B. dragged  C. filled up   D. Soaked through

  解析:介词with可以用来表示“在一起、用、有”。plugged 所在句子句意大致为:原本的颗粒之间的缝隙并没有完全被粘性的化学物质所XX。鉴于有with,可以猜测是因为粘性的化学物质把缝隙连起来了,C选项的filledup表示填充,正好符合,所以答案为C。

  DELTA EXERCISE

  One of the rose’s most common associations in folklore is with death. The Romans often decked the tombs of the dead with roses;

  The word “decked” in the passage is closet in meaning to

  A. Painted   B. Separated   C. Decorated   D. Disguised

  解析:decked和介词with这里搭配,with就表示“用和伴随”。那么通过句意可以猜到是用玫瑰花装饰死者的坟墓,所以答案为C。

  TPO2-3

  37. At the same time, the image that the spectator looked at expanded from the minuscule peepshow dimensions of 1 or 2 inches (in height) to the life-size proportions of 6 or 9 feet.

  The word expanded in the passage is closet in meaning to

  A. Was enlarged      B. Was improved

  C. Was varied        D. Was rejected

  解析:expanded和介词from…to在这里搭配,而from…to本来就表示变化。from后面是1or 2 inches (in height)1或2英寸高,to后面是life-size…6 or 9 feet真实大小,6或9英尺。那么“从小变大”,答案为A。

  线索2:逻辑关系-转折or 同义重申。所以答案应该在与原文句子里的单词有近义词或反义词当中寻找。是不是太简单粗暴了?是的,我们就是这样的。

  所有的逻辑关系我们都可以简化为转折和同义重申。有转折词的即为转折,无转折词的即为同义重申(同样的范畴和语气通过不同的方式再说一次)。

  词与词之间:

  TPO1-2

  15. In seeking to describe the origins of theater, one must rely primarily on speculation, since there is little concrete evidence on which to draw. The most widely accepted theory,championed by anthropologists in the late nine teenth and early twentieth century, envisions theater as emerging out of myth and ritual.

  The word “championed”in the passage is closet in meaning to

  A. Changed   B. Debated  C. Created   D. Supported

  解析:The most widely accepted theory,championed by anthropologists……中,championed 其实是和accepted是并列的关系,都是用来修饰theory的。那么accepted这个词是个常规词汇,意思为接受,那么championed也就是相近的意思,那么答案为D,接受的,支持的。

  句子内部:

  TPO 2-1

  3. There is little doubt, however,that desertification in most areas results primarily from human activities rather than natural processes. The semiarid lands bordering the deserts exist in a delicate ecological balance and are limited in their potential to adjust to increased environmental pressures.

  The word delicate in the passage isclosest in meaning to

  A. fragile   B. predictable   C. complex  D. valuable

  解析:exist in a delicate ecological balance and are limited in their potential to adjust to increased environmental pressures中,delicate是用来修饰ecological balance的,后面紧跟着有个“and”,因此其语气应该和后面的limited in the potential 一致。Limited是个常规词汇,意为有限的,语气为负面的,那么作为并列delicate也应该是负面的语气,用来修饰生态平衡,那么答案为A,脆弱的生态平衡。

  TPO2-2

  16. Although limited to askull, the Pakicetus fossil provides precious details on the origins of cetaceans.

  The word precious in the passage is closet in meaning to

  A. Exact   B. Scarce  C. Valuable   D. Initial

  解析:precious所在的句子的主句与其从句因为although呈现出转折的逻辑关系,所以precious的语气和词义应该与limited相反。limited为有限的,语气为负面,所以precious的语气应为正面的积极的,答案为C,意为有价值的。

  7. Since the raising of most crops necessitates the prior removal of the natural vegetation, crop failures leave extensive tracts of land devoid of a plant cover and susceptible to wind and water erosion.

  The phrase devoid of in the passage is closet in meaning to

  A. Consisting of   B. Hidden by   C. Except for   D. Lacking in

  解析:devoid所在的主句与从句因为since逻辑关系为因果,被我们划为同义重申。那么从句句意为因为绝大多数的庄稼的培植必须事先移除土地的自然植被,所以主句说一旦庄稼种植失败,就留下了大面积的土地devoid植物的覆盖,当然是没有植物的覆盖了,所以答案为D。当然还可以根据主句内部的and判断出与and后面的句意的逻辑关系为并列,后面说susceptible to wind and the water erosion容易受到风和水的腐蚀,可以判断出前文应该是没有植物的覆盖,答案为D。但是susceptible to这个词汇很多同学都不认识,所以还是前一种方法对于此题更可行。

  句与句之间:

  DELTA EXERCISE

  Cool has with stood the fleeting nature of most slang. As a modifier, as a noun,and as a verb, cool has been around along time.

  The word “fleeting”in the passage is closet in meaning to

  A. Temporary   B. Youthful  C. Emotional   D. Popular

  解析:fleeting这句和后一句的逻辑关系为同义重申,因为后一句开头没有转折。后一句讲到cool已经存在很长的时间了,所以讲的是时间的范畴,那么选项应该也是时间的。A和B都有点和时间有关联。但是因为第一句有with stood词义为禁得住,第一句的句意为绝大多数俚语有着一个特质即为fleeting,而cool却经受住了这样的考验。加上后句讲存在了很长的时间,结合起来也就是说cool经受住了俚语随时间快速消逝的考验,所以答案为A,短暂的。简而言之,别的俚语都很快就消逝了,而cool却流传下来。

  TPO3-3

  38. Ecologists are especially interested to know what factors contribute to the resilience of communities because climax communities all over the world are being severely damaged or destroyed by human activities. The destruction caused by the volcanic explosion of Mount St Helens, in the north-western United States, for example, pales in comparison to the destruction caused by humans.

  The word pales in the passage is closet in meaning to

  A. Increases proportionally     B.Differs

  C. Loses significance         D. Is common

  解析:pales所在的句子一开头并没有转折词汇出现,所以与前一句的逻辑关系为同义重申,因此重点在于读懂前一句的句意。前一句为:生态学家特别想知道是哪些因素导致了群落的复苏,因为全世界的顶级群落都正在被人类的活动所严重破坏。请宝宝们注意严重这个词。pales所在的句子紧接着就举例了,结果举了个大自然活动的破坏的例子,并把大自然活动的破坏和人类互动的破坏放在一起比较,根据同义重申的逻辑关系,应该是人类活动的破坏性很严重,那么正话反说,大自然活动的破坏性就没有人类活动的破坏性强。所以答案为C,没那么严重。

  作者:戚宵睿

  四川大学英语专业,澳大利亚新南威尔士大学访学者,持有TESOL证书。

  留学培训行业10余年经验,2006年,怀着对优秀团队的憧憬加入新东方。教授国外考试12年,涉及托福、雅思和BEC课程。课堂高效,方法精炼,培训出多名高分学员,为同学们所推崇。因与学生课堂互动氛围轻松而被学生亲切地称呼为“Q姐”。曾荣获2015年度新东方集团优秀教师,2015年上海新东方学校优秀教师。

  人生历练感悟:通向机会之门的每一段阶梯都需要自己的精心修筑。看似不经意的每个机会串联起来,将为你每一次的努力一锤定音。

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